大学习英语四六级考试写作部分精解

时间:2022-1-1 作者:江沪英语网

写好英语作文的重要是套用句型,背诵很多范本,达到熟知这部分地道的句子结构!建议你背诵这篇英语作文大学习英语四六级考试写作部分精解,并提取其中的重要句型,活用到你的作文中去,就可以获得高分!

从句到段:段落的展开

基本句法学会之后,下面就要练习段落写作,这是由于段落是文章的基本组成部分,要写出好文章,需要在段落写作上多下功夫。

段的基本组成是句子,好的段落应该是该段中所有些句子都围绕着一个主题展开,且句与句之间应该是紧密相连,形成统一的整体即unified and coherent。那样如何将一个段落展开呢?下面介绍英语中几种常见的办法。

(1)时间顺序 按时间顺序写作就是根据事物进步在时间上的正常顺序或先后顺序展开段落。在讲述故事或回忆事件时,先发生的先写,后发生的后写。请看下面的例子:

My heart gave a leap when I heard the announcement that our train would soon arrive at its destination-Beijing. Like other passengers, I began to collect my things and put my mug, towel, atlas, apples, and other things into my bag. To the tune of a beautiful song the train pulled into the station and gently stopped by a platform. I walked out of the train and was carried forward by the stream of people into an underground passage and then into a big hall. As I stepped out of the station, I was dazzled by the bright autumn skies of Beijing. Though I had been on the train for more the thirty hours and spent an sleepless night, I didn't feel tired at all, and I believed my days in this glorious city would be as sunny as the skies.

(2)空间顺序 按空间顺序组织材料一般用于描述一个地方、事情或人物外貌等。其文章内容应根据近及远、远及近、自下而上、自上而下、按顺时针方向或逆时针方向排列,比如:

In the middle of the rectangular-shaped courtyard stood three magnolia trees(), all in full bloom. A little girl was hoping among them, now gazing at a bud, now collecting fallen petals. Under one of the trees stood her parents, who, while keeping an eye on her, were examining the snow white blossoms with great interest and admiration. In front of another tree a young couple, fresh and bright as the flowers, were posing for a picture. At the end of the courtyard a group of youngsters had gathered behind an artist painting a flourishing limb, which looked so charming and real that a boy stooped to sniff at a half-open flower. At the opposite end a few elderly men and women stood admiring the leafless flowering trees and the people looking at them.

(3)列举法 通过列举一系列的论据 对主题句中的论点进行广泛、全方位的陈述或讲解,列举的顺序可根据所列各点的内容的相对重要程度、时间、空间来排列,比如:

The Other Side of City Life

In the eyes of many people, city life is attractive with all its advantages and convenience, yet they don't see the other side of the picture. First, with the expansion of the city, housing has become a serious problem for city people. Then, there is the problem of pollution: harmful gases from vehicles and poisonous water from factories pollute our surroundings; noise continually disturbs your peace and rest and drives you mad. Thirdly, modern city life puts a high pressure upon people; you have to hurry to and from work; you have to dodge in so as to avoid bumping into the flood of people, bicycles, cars, buses…; all day long you are under great stress. Fourthly, big cities also cause some social problems. Of which high crime rate is the most serious one. People are justifiably in fear of becoming victims of burglary, robbery, murder and other crimes at any time. They should find some ways to cope with all these problems.

(4)举例法 在主题句中简要、概括地说明一个段落的主题思想之后,可以用具体的、生动的事例来支撑论证主题,向目的读者展示并使他们具体感受主题句中尚未展开的内容和细则,比如:

This term several useful and interesting courses have been offered. An Introduction to European Culture, for instance, gives us a lot of background knowledge of the history of European philosophy, literature, and arts. From time to time we see slide shows of famous paintings and hear tapes of famous pieces of music, and they make the lectures all the more interesting. American Society and Culture is another course that attracts a large audience. The teacher, who visited the United States not long ago, discusses new trends and changes in American life as well as American history and traditions. We like these and other courses very much, because they help us not only to improve our English but also to broaden our vision.

(5)比较和对比 比较(comparison)主如果指出两个或两个以上不同类型的事物的一同点或相似之处,如人物、地址、事物、思想、看法等。对照(contrast)主如果指出它们的不同的地方。相同的或类似的特点可以组成比较,不一样的特点则可以组成对照。不但这样,比较和对比常常同时用,这是由于比较中总是隐含着对比。

比较和对比常有两种形式,即整体比较和对比(block comparison and contrast)与逐项比较(alternating comparison),比如:

Although Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee were fierce adversaries during the Civil War, their lives, both military and nonmilitary, has a great deal in common. Grant descended from a family whose members participated in the American Revolution. He received his commission of second lieutenant from West Point and served in the Spanish-American War. He was later summoned by President Lincoln to assume command of the Union Forces during the Civil War. After the Civil War, Grant suffered financial problems and was forced to declare bankruptcy. Lee also descended from a family which engaged in the American Revolution. He, too, received his commission from West Point and later fought in Mexico during the Spanish-American War. His fame as a military strategist during the Civil War, when he was the commander of the Confederate armies, is well known. Although it is not always pointed out by historians he, like Grant, had financial difficulties after the civil War and was compelled to declare bankruptcy. By securing a post as president of Washington College, he was able to avoid additional poverty.(整体比较)

The same qualities that make people good houseguests make them good hospital patients. Good houseguests can expect a reasonable amount of service and effort on their behalf, and hospital patients can also. Guests have to adjust to what is for them a change, and certainly hospital patients must do the same. No one appreciates a complaining, unpleasant, unappreciative house guest, and the hospital staff is no exception. Hose guests who expect vast changes to be made for their benefit are not popular for long. Certainly nurses and other personnel with their routines feel the same way about patients in their care. Just as house guests must make adjustments to enjoy their visits, so patients must make adjustments to make their stays reasonably pleasant and satisfying under the circumstances.(逐项比较)

(6)缘由和结果 因果剖析是常见的拓展段落的办法之一,必须要注意推理的逻辑性因果关系需要表达了解,不可以因果混淆,更不可以因果倒置,要防止牵强附会和循环论证。一个缘由可能导致一个或多个结果,也会在一大段文章中涉及到一连串因果关系。一个结果也会多种缘由所引起,一般先写结果,后写多种缘由;但也可先写缘由后写结果。另外,假如哟啊强调缘由或结果,可用倒装或强调句型加以突出。比如:

The surge of demand for oil will soon begin to send shock waves through the American economy and transportation system. The impact of these tremors can already be anticipated: to the consumer they signal the end of a long love affair with the car, and to Detroit they offer an early warning that its 1985 growth aims are dangerously unrealistic. Unless we exercise foresight and devise growth-limits policies for the auto industry, events will thrust us into a crisis that will lead to a substantial erosion of domestic oil supply as well as the independence it provides us with, and a level of petroleum imports that could cost as much as $20 to $30 billion per year. Moreover, we would still be depleting our remaining oil reserves at an unacceptable rate, and scrambling for petroleum substitutes, with enormous potential damage to the environment.

(7)概念法 有时为了防止混淆或误解,大家需要对一个词、一条术语或谚语、一个定义通过下概念加以说明、讲解。一般有三种办法下定概念:给出近义词、用一个带有定语从句的复合句或用一整段文章,而以第三种办法最为常用。1997年1月份四级考试的作文Practice Makes Perfect就是一篇极为典型的概念型文章。再看下面的例子:

A "liberated woman" is simply a woman who controls her own life, rather than allowing it to be controlled by other people, traditions, or expectations. A "liberated woman" can be found pursuing any line of work, including housework, or no work at all. She may or may not be married; she may or may not have born children. She may belong to any race; she may have attained any age. She need have only one trait in common with her "liberated sisters": she makes her own choices, whether they be the colors on her walls or the advanced degrees she seeks. She acts of her own volition, responsible to herself, and not out of fear of what her mother, lover, or neighbor might say.

(8)分类法 所谓"分类"就是依据人物和事物的特点将他们/它们分别归入每个都不一样的范畴。在写这些段落时,必须要抓住各个类别的典型特点,不要异类相串,混淆起来。比如:

According to Xiao Li, the fifteen students of his class fall into three groups. Seven of them work hard and study well. They always get good marks in examinations and are often praised by the teachers. Li calls them "good students". The monitor, the secretary of the Youth League branch, and the captain of the class volleyball team, are quick in finding out what their fellow students are interested in or what they should do as a collective. They always organize proper activities at the proper time, so Li calls them "good organizers". Four other students are very kind to their classmates, always ready to lend them a helping hand. They help to clean the classroom and the corridor even when they are not on duty. Li says that they are "good fellows". "What about yourself?" someone asks him. "I'm a group by myself-a good observer."

从段到篇:四种体裁

学会了前面八种段落展开的"天龙八部",在面对任何级别的英语考试的作文时,相信大伙都可以从容落笔,应对如裕。

不过,大伙仍然要谋篇布局,从篇章的角度对自己要写的内容作宏观的整体上的把握,这就需要大伙区别各种体裁,以使用不一样的办法去应付。英语文章的体裁可分为四类,即:

(1)记叙文(narration)

(2)描述文(description)

(3)说明文(exposition)

(4)议论文(argumentation)

和中文无异。限于篇幅,在此就不一一举例详细论述,只说一下写作要点。

先说记叙文。所谓narration就是叙述一件事或一连串事件,像四级过去考过的A Morning Walk(晨间漫步)即是一例。在写这种作文时,应该注意以下几个方面:第一,在刚开始就要设定时间、地址、人物,必须要交代了解;第二,在讲述发生的事件本身时,要选取一些重要的细则,不要漫无边际或不着边际,而组织那些素材通常使用"时间顺序"亦即先发生的先写,后发生的后写,或用倒叙法,先讲结局,再从头描述经过。另外,应该注意人称、年代的一致性。

再看描述型文章。所谓description就是用文字对一个人、一个地方、一件物体或一个场景进行描绘。在描述我们的印象时,必须要尽可能选取那些能够帮助表现人物、场景的典型特点和突出特征,剔除那些枝蔓的零碎的细则。只有如此,才能使所描述的内容呼之欲出、跃然纸上,具备很大的表现力。

再谈谈说明文。这是四级考试中出现最为频繁的体裁,无论是A or B、A and B,还是Why to do、How to do, 或是图表型作文,都可归入此类。假如说描述文主要涉及外表和感受,记叙文主要涉及事件和经历,那样说明文则主如果关于过程和关系。举例来讲吧,大家面前有一件物体,假如要对其外观进行描写,大家就要写成描述型的作文,假如要讲解它是怎么样制作的,又是怎么用的,那就需要写成说明文;大家可以讲述一个历史事件,到底出了什么事,何时何地发生,都有哪个参与其中,那就是叙述,而要讨论该事件的前因后果,它的本质又是什么,与在历史长河中的深远意义,那就需要写成说明文。前面所介绍的展开段落的办法,如分类法、概念法、比较和对比、举例法等等,大部分都可用于说明文的写作。

最后谈谈议论文。说明文是一种以阐释和讲解为表达方法,用简单、平实、通俗的语言,对事物的、事理的、人物的特质、状况、背景等所作的讲解和介绍的文体,而议论文则是以议论为主要表达方法,以逻辑思维为主要思维方法,对现实日常的现象和原理说长道短、论是斥非、阐明我们的立场和看法的一种文体,二者不可相混淆。说明是被人了解,而议论则要让人信服。论点要旗帜鲜明,论据要充分有力,论证要符合逻辑。就四级考试而言,真的意义上的议论文并不多见,即使是已经考过的议论文,如幸运号码、英语口试的必要性等,也较易处置,因此不再赘述。

需要强调的是,在四级考试中,总是是在同一篇文章中几种体裁兼而有之,大伙不要拘泥于教条,如2003年6月的车祸见证书,记述、描写、说明三种体裁都有所照顾,目的是要测试同学们对于不相同种类型写作的把握,全方位地考察写作教学的水平。

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