阅读英语优美文摘

时间:2022-1-14 作者:我爱英语网

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听诊器是怎么发明出来的?

How Was The Stethoscope Invented?

听诊器是怎么发明出来的?

In the early 1800s, a French physician named René Laennec had a dilemma. He needed to listen to the heart sounds of a young woman with signs of heart disease. But the only method of listening to heart sounds known to Western medicine at the time was simply to press an ear to the patient’s chest. Laennec just couldn’t bring himself to get that close and personal with this ample young woman.

在19世纪初,一位法国内科医生雷纳-莱纳克遇到了一个难题。在为一位有心脏病迹象的年轻女性看病时,雷奈克需要听到她的心跳声才能确诊。但当时西医界已知的听诊方法只是简单地将耳朵贴近患者的胸部来判断心跳声。但莱纳克并不想与这位年轻女士太过接近。

How could he make a diagnosis?

那么他如何诊断呢?

The story goes that Laennec grabbed a piece of paper and rolled it into a cylinder. With the cylinder between his ear and the young woman’s chest, Laennec saved himself and his patient from embarrassment. But he was also surprised to find that the heart sounds conducted through the cylinder were louder and clearer than he’d ever heard before.

故事的结局是莱纳克随后拿了张纸卷成圆筒状。他将这一纸质圆筒置于他的耳朵和患者的胸部之间,使得两人都免于了尴尬。但与此同时,他惊奇地发现通过纸质圆筒传出的心跳声相较以往听到的更为响亮清晰。

Laennec named his invention the stethoscope, from the Greek words for “chest” and “to view,” because it opened a new window into what was happening in the heart and lungs.

莱纳克将这一发明命名为听诊器,这一名称取自希腊语中的“胸部”及“观察”两个词,因为这一发明为心肺诊断技术开辟了一种新的方法。

After experimenting with different materials, Laennec decided that wood cylinders conducted sound best. He spent the rest of his life interpreting heart and lung sounds, conducting autopsies when possible to confirm the diagnoses he’d made by sound.

通过对不同材质进行实验后,莱纳克认为木质圆筒作为听诊器的效果最佳。他将余生致力于研究心肺听诊,并通过尸检来验证他此前通过听诊所下的诊断。

Although the stethoscope revolutionized Western medicine, it met with great resistance at first. In the 1820s, many physicians felt that listening through the cylinder would be too time consuming, inconvenient, and well, even silly! But soon the value of Laennec’s modest invention became clear. And today, the stethoscope is a nearly universal symbol of medicine and health care.

尽管听诊器彻底改革了西医诊断方法,但它最初推广使用时也遭遇了极大的阻力。19世纪20年代,许多医生认为通过圆筒听诊太费时又不方便,甚至很愚蠢!但不久之后,莱纳克这项颇为实用的发明的价值逐渐显现。现今,听诊器已成为医学保健普遍的象征。

格陵兰岛人是怎样学会计数的?

How People In Greenland Learn How To Count

格陵兰岛人是怎样学会计数的?

Kids learn to count on their fingers, because they’re so, well, handy! And it makes sense–most number systems originally developed as people counted using their fingers.

小孩通过数手指来学习计数,因为这样确实非常方便。由此,最初的数字系统是从人们以手指计数发展而来也就变得合乎情理了。

The counting system of native Greenlanders not only uses all ten fingers, but all ten toes as well! Here’s how it works. The Greenlandic word for the number seven translates as, “second hand, two.” That means you count five on the first hand and add two from the second, to make seven. After you run out of fingers, go for the toes. Thirteen translates as “first foot, three.” That means you add all ten fingers plus three toes.

古代格陵兰岛人的计数系统不仅要用到十个手指,甚至连十个脚趾都用上了!以下就是这种计数方式的工作原理。格陵兰语中,数字7翻译出来就是“第二只手,两 根手指。”意思是说你数完第一只手的五个手指,再加上第二只手的两根手指得到数字七。如果手指不够用,那就再用脚趾。数字13翻译出来是“第一只脚,三只 脚趾。”说明你数完了所有十个手指,再数三个脚趾就得到数字十三。

The counting system we use has a base of ten. Larger numbers are simply multiples of ten. For example, ten tens make one hundred. We’re so used to our base ten system that it may seem like the only possibility. But the Greenlandic number system has a base of twenty, and others have a base of five. Of all the number systems ever invented, five, ten, and twenty are the most common bases.

我们使用的计数系统是十进制的。较大的数字就是用10来倍乘。比如,10个10就是100.我们非常习惯使用十进制计数,以至于认为世上只有这一种计数系 统。但是格陵兰岛的计数系统是二十进制的,也有一些地方采用五进制。在所有发明的计数系统中,五进制、十进制和二十进制是最为常见的。

It’s no coincidence that these bases match the number of fingers on one hand, or two hands, or all of our fingers and toes. The connection between fingers and counting is so close that several languages have just one word that means both “hand” and the number five. Even in English, the word digit describes either a number or a finger. So if anyone teases you for counting on your fingers, just tell them you find your digits quite handy!

这些计数的基数和我们的一只手的手指数、两只手的手指数,以及所有的手指和脚趾的数目吻合并非巧合。手指和计数之间的联系如此紧密以至于很多语言里都只有 一个词用来同时表示“手”和数字“五”。甚至在英语里也有这样的情况,单词digit既可表示数字也可表示手指。因此,如果有人因为你用手指数数而取笑你 的话,你只需告诉他你觉得使用手指计算很方便就行了!


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