北外翻译笔记 第8课 翻译方法–转换

时间:2022-1-8 作者:星沙英语网



(一) 英语中有一些计量词,如score, dozen, decade, quarter等,在汉语中没相应的表达方法,所以在汉译时得对其加以转换。比如:

(1) Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.


(2) A dozen and a half aeroplanes poured out into the airport during that five minutes.


(3) Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation.


(4) They had a dozen children, six boys and six girls, in seventeen years.


(二) 因为英汉两种语言在表述角度上不尽相同,翻译时常常有必要转换角度,才能使意思了解了解、表达自然。比如:

(1) She has been a widow only for six months.



(2) ──Is there a special rate by the month?

──Yes, there is a 10% discount.



4、 自然语序与倒装语序转换


(1) Away ran the boy.女生跑开了。

(2) Slowly climbs the summer moon.夏季的月亮慢慢地爬上来了。

5、 正面表达与反面表达转换

因为思维方法的不同,英语中有的从正面表达的东西在汉语中习惯从反面来表达;而有的从反面来表达的东西在汉语中则习惯从正面来表达。因此,英译汉时常常有必要进行转换。这就是一般所说的"正说反译、反说正译"法。英语正面表达这里指的是不带否定词no, not , never否定前缀non-, in-, im-, ir-, dis-和否定后缀-less等的句子,汉语正面表达则是指不带"不"、"没"、"非"、"未"、 "否"、 "无"、 "莫"、"勿"、"别"等否定词汇的句子;反之则是反面表达。


frost-free refrigerator无霜冰箱

Freeze! 别动!

Wet paint! 油漆未干!

mortally ill 不治之症

(1) The proposal was carried by a very narrow margin. 这项建议差点通不过。

(2)We believe that the younger generation will prove worthy of our trust. 大家相信,年青一代将不会辜负大家的信赖。

(3) He went to an outdoor phone booth and dialed Chicago, then New York, then San Francisco. Silence. Silence. Silence. 他到一个户姥爷用电话亭,先给芝加哥、又给纽约、旧金山打了电话。

(4) As a place to live, it left much to be desired. As a secret training base for a revolutionary new plane, it was an excellent site, its remoteness effectively masking its activity. 作为居住的地方,这里有很多不足之处,但作为改革性的新飞机秘密练习基地,却是很理想的。由于它地处边陲,大家不容易发觉其中的活动。

(5) The pictures that linger in his mind, called up in a moment by such sensations as the smell of roses or of new-mown hay, are of a simpler nature. 然而,萦绕心头的画面,那些一经嗅到玫瑰花香或新鲜干草的气息便会倏地闯入记忆的情景,其实并不复杂。

(6) As he sipped his coffee, he opened a still damp morning paper; and began reading. 他一面喝咖啡,一面翻开油墨未干的晨报,看了起来。

(7) Father’s attitude toward anybody who wasn’t his kind used to puzzle me. 以前我总不懂爸爸为何对那些脾气跟他不同的人采取那样个态度。

(8) Sadly, Edward died before he could see the new church, but his beautiful tomb is still there, with the tombs of the Kings and Queens of England who came after him. 遗憾的是,爱德华未能看见新教堂就过世了,但他那幽雅的墓地和嗣后的英国国王和王后的墓地还都留在那里。


(1) You can’t be too careful. 你要特别小心。

(2) The significance of these incidents wasn’t lost on us. 这部分事件引起了大家的看重。

(3) Such flights couldn’t long escape notice. 这种飞行早晚会让人发觉的。

(4) The human system can hold out for a while against the gas from a leaking, damped-down coal stove, but soon after unconsciousness comes death. 煤气如果是从封上火的煤炉漏出,人体可以忍受一些时候,但人昏迷之后,不需要很长时间就会死亡。

(5) But there is another story, a family saga, that may turn out to be important to unlocking the mystery of what actually happened between Lewinsky and the President. 但,莱温斯基和总统之间到底出了什么事,另外一个故事,即家史,最后对解开这个谜十分要紧。

(6) Maintaining credibility requires confronting potential adversaries with the objective, unambiguous facts of our counter-balancing military capabilities, our political strengths and economic advantages, and our clear resolution to use these for our defense if necessary. 维持这种靠谱性需要以下客观的、明确的事实来应对潜在的对手:大家达到平衡的军事能力、大家的政治实力和经济优势与大家必要时用这部分方法进行自卫的毫不含糊的决心。

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在现代办公日常,大家愈加多地会用到英语,用英语发邮件,用英语写记录报告,或者用英语向上司写假条。本期“乘兴走笔”就来跟大伙讲讲怎么样用英语写假条,也就是提前请假的情况下应该如何写假条。 第一,假条的上方还是应该根据半