Entrepreneurs with new technologies are emerging everywhere.
Framework agreements guiding government action are in place, and there are big and new commitments being made.
The solutions go well beyond just fixing air-conditioning.
The solutions range from city design to architecture, from building materials to appliances, from geoengineering to green roofs.
The solutions can be high-tech, they can be low-tech, and there are four areas of promise, four areas where solutions could be transformative if we step up to the plate, prioritize, regulate and invest.
We’ll go through them one by one.
First, we need to build and design differently for cooling.
For the last 70 years or more, air-conditioning has driven building design.
We need to change that, and we need to move away from hermetically sealed concrete and glass boxes where you can switch on an air conditioner but you cannot open the window.
You know it doesn’t have to be a window rattler as a solution.
District cooling can provide cooling solutions for building complexes by running water through insulated pipes.
And in Denmark, better known for its wind and its rain, district cooling provides, with a combination of heat pumps, wastewater and groundwater, cooling solutions for offices and homes.
And we can make roofs cool, too.
The race is on for the brightest, whitest paint that reflects 98 percent of sunlight that hits its surface, much better than the 80 to 90 percent we achieve today.
关键在于造出最白最亮的涂料，就能反射 98%的太阳光，现在的屋顶涂料只能达到80% 至 90%的反射率。
And if not white then green.
Green because they’re planted with gardens and vegetables, also contributing to the food that has to come from urban farming.
Roofing materials matter, too.
In India, modular roofing panels made from paper and waste wood can reduce the temperatures by up to 10 degrees centigrade in the homes below.
And we can change windows, too.
In the European Union, solar control glass is available that provides high daylight transmission, thermal insulation, transparency and low reflection.
Second, we need to make cooling hyperefficient.
In the developed world, if you buy a high-end air conditioner today, it’s probably 25 to 50 percent more efficient than anything you could have bought 10 years ago.
Now we need every air conditioner for sale everywhere to be at least 50 percent more efficient than the most efficient air conditioner on the market today.
It helps if we think of energy efficiency as our first fuel.
That’s not the priority we give it in policy.
We need much more of our economic activity to be covered by energy efficiency standards that are much tougher than today’s.
Radical efficiency is important for heating too.
Heating accounts for most emissions from building, but emissions from cooling are the fastest rising.
So we need much more synergy between heating and cooling.
Remember the alley behind the convenience store?
High-efficiency energy pumps will be solutions for both.