英语四级六级培训课程

地球变暖的不可预测性

时间:2022-3-28 作者:快乐英语网

地球变暖的不可预测性

Global Warming Beliefs

Here’s one of the confusing issues regarding global warming: After all the data we’ve collected so far how can we still have such wide variety in outlooks for our future?

Well Mark Maslin, director of the Environment Institute at the University College London and his colleague John Adams proposed one theory.

They believe that human opinion can be explained by how we respond to risk and uncertainty.

In reference to global warming beliefs, they combine four possible myths of nature with four myths of human nature. Myth is their term-you can also think of them as belief or opinion.

Here they are:

1) Nature is benign: Earth is predictable and robust, able to withstand or bounce back from any damage. This view corresponds with what they call inpidualists, entrepreneurial types who don’t necessarily believe in control or intervention from others. Maslin uses the example of self-made oil barons.

2) Nature is ephemeral: Earth is fragile and it is in danger of collapse. And this view is held by egalitarians, people who have strong democratic group loyalties but do not respect externally imposed rules. Radical environmentalists might fall into this category.

3) Nature is tolerant: Earth can handle some changes, but major excesses will send it reeling. This is a view held by hierarchists, people who know their place, and adhere to strong social structures. Scientists or soldiers might be examples.

4) Nature is capricious: Earth’s reactions are so unpredictable that we cannot predict nor accurately plan our future. This is the view of fatalists, those who feel they have little control over their lives.

From this framework, Maslin says we can tell which person is likely to believe which view of nature. And this is one way to look at why there are so many responses to the threat of global warming, despite us all having access to the same information.

对全球变暖的不同看法

本期涉及到对全球变暖的各种不同看法:到现在为止,在大家采集到了所有些信息后,大家为何仍然对大家地球的将来持这样不一样的看法?

伦敦大学学院环境研究所(Environment Institute at the University College London)的主任Mark Maslin和他的同事John Adams提出了一种理论。

他们觉得,大家的看法可以用大家怎么样对风险和不确订做出反应来讲解。

就全球变暖的看法来看,他们把自然的4种"神话"和人类的四种"神话"结合起来。"神话"是他们用到的术语—你也可以把它们觉得是信仰或者看法。

它们分别如下:

1)自然是友好的:地球可以预测并且坚固,能抵抗任何破坏或者从破坏中恢复过来。这种看法对应于他们所称为的"个人主义者",他们是一类富于创造的人,不相信其他人的控制或者干预。Maslin以白手起家的石油大亨作为这种类型的人的例子。

2)自然是短暂的:地球非常脆弱,而且处于崩溃的危险中。平等主义者持有这种看法。平等主义者具备强烈的民主集体忠诚,但不遵从外加的统治。极端环保主义者可能归是这些。

3)自然具备耐受性:地球能应付一些变化,但过度的改变将使地球难以承受。等级主义者持这种看法。等级主义者了解他们在社会上的地方,能遵从森严的社会结构。科学家或者士兵可能是这种类型的人。

4)自然不可捉摸:地球的反应这样不可预测,因此大家既不可以预测也不可以准确地谋划大家的将来。这是宿命论者的看法。宿命论者觉得他们对生活几乎没控制力。

依据这种理论框架,Maslin说大家能说出哪类人非常可能持有哪类自然看法。这是一种办法来讲解为何尽管大家所获得的信息是一样的,而大家对全球变暖的威胁会有这样多的反应。

Vocabulary:

Perceive:认知;感知

Inpidual:个体的;个人的

Confuse: 混淆的;混乱的

Variety: 变化

Propose: 建议

Uncertainty: 不确定

Myth: 神话

Benign: 有好的

Predictable: 可预测的

Robust: 强劲的;坚固的

Withstand: 抵抗

Inpidualist: 个人主义者

Entrepreneurial: 创业的

Intervention: 干预

Baron: 大亨

Ephemeral: 短暂的

Fragile: 脆弱的

Collapse: 坍塌;崩溃

Egalitarian: 平等主义者

Category: 类别

Tolerant: 宽容的;能在困难条件下存活的

Excess: 过度

Reel: 感到震撼;仿佛天旋地转

Hierarchist: 等级主义者

Capricious: 变幻莫测的;

Accurately: 精确地

Fatalist: 宿命论者

Have access to: 有机会、权利

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