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叫你知道抑郁症

时间:2022-3-27 作者:趣学网

There are several forms of depressive disorders. The most common are major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder.

抑郁症有几个种类。最容易见到的是重度抑郁症和心理恶劣障碍。

Major depressive disorder, also called major depression, is characterized by a combination of symptoms that interfere with a person’s ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy once–pleasurable activities. Major depression is disabling and prevents a person from functioning normally. An episode of major depression may occur only once in a person’s lifetime, but more often, it recurs throughout a person’s life.

重度抑郁症,也叫做重度抑郁,以一组妨碍个体的工作、睡眠、学习、饮食和享乐(一度愉悦的活动)的症状为特点的疾病。重度抑郁能致残并使个人正常机能受损。重度抑郁发作可能在个体一生中仅出现一次,但更多的状况是重度抑郁在一生中反复发作。

Dysthymic disorder, also called dysthymia, is characterized by long–term (two years or longer) but less severe symptoms that may not disable a person but can prevent one from functioning normally or feeling well. People with dysthymia may also experience one or more episodes of major depression during their lifetimes.

心理恶劣障碍,也叫做恶劣心理,以长期(两年或更长)但较轻的症状为特点。它并不肯定使个人致残,但能使个人正常机能受损或不可以感到心情舒服。心理恶劣患者在其一生中,也会历程一次或更多此的重度抑郁。

Some forms of depressive disorder exhibit slightly different characteristics than those described above, or they may develop under unique circumstances. However, not all scientists agree on how to characterize and define these forms of depression. They include:

一些抑郁症形式在表现上与上述障碍相比,稍有不一样的特点;或者,它们可能在特定的环境下患上。但,并非所有科学家都赞同怎么样对这类形式的抑郁症的概念和分类。它们包含:

Psychotic depression, which occurs when a severe depressive illness is accompanied by some form of psychosis, such as a break with reality, hallucinations, and delusions.

精神病性抑郁症,这种疾病会出现,当重度抑郁症随着有一些精神病形式,譬如丧失现实感、幻觉和妄想。

Postpartum depression, which is diagnosed if a new mother develops a major depressive episode within one month after delivery. It is estimated that 10 to 15 percent of women experience postpartum depression after giving birth.

产后抑郁症,假如新生儿妈妈在分娩一个月后重度抑郁症发作,那样该病便确诊了。大家估计10-15%的女人在生产后,历程重度抑郁症。

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is characterized by the onset of a depressive illness during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. SAD may be effectively treated with light therapy, but nearly half of those with SAD do not respond to light therapy alone. Antidepressant medication and psychotherapy can reduce SAD symptoms, either alone or in combination with light therapy.

季节性情绪紊乱症(SAD),以冬天缺少自然光,抑郁症发作为特点的。抑郁一般在春天和夏天消褪。SAD患者可能对光线疗法有效,但几乎一半的SAD患者对单用光线疗法无反应。抗抑郁药物和心理疗法可以降低SAD症状。它们要么单独用,或者与光线疗法联用。

Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, is not as common as major depression or dysthymia. Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycling mood changes-from extreme highs (e.g., mania) to extreme lows (e.g., depression). Visit the NIMH website for more information about bipolar disorder.

双相情感障碍,也叫做躁郁症,并不像重度抑郁症或心理恶劣一样常见。双相情感障碍是以环性心理变化——从高峰(譬如,躁狂)到低谷(譬如,抑郁)为特点的。请参看NIMH网站获得更多关于双相情感障碍的信息。

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